A transformative but still misunderstood system

It was Emmanuel Macron who threw the pier into the pond: on May 6, among the solutions to bring culture out of crisis, he wishes Revolutionizing access to culture and art Artists are invited to visit “Noon or two” In the school to promote artistic and cultural education of students. 2s2c device for Sports, health, culture and citizenship It was created by the government to offer students private lessons about the basics in the morning, and cultural and artistic activities in the afternoon. A platform dedicated to artistic and cultural education for young people has been launched by the Ministries of National Education and Culture, with the primary purpose of Supporting the return to artistic and cultural practices of youth By connecting artists and schools.

Amazement of art education professionals: “Speaking of returning to the artistic practices of young people, when music teachers are mobilized during confinement to maintain classrooms by all means, and some have completely reinvented themselves, it is embarrassing to say the least,” Ann Claire Skibalt, the college’s music teacher and president of the APEMu Association, regretted it. “When we’re told about artists in schools for 2s2c, it’s disgusting that we don’t even talk about the opportunity to bond with what’s already there…” Adds a college music teacher who wished to remain anonymous, noting that engaging the artists in the school, without any educational training and without a project, is simply impossible. It is an ancient sea snake. France, the land of cultural exception, admires the artist at the expense of the art teacher, who is considered biased. In addition, there is a real misunderstanding of what is being taught and who is taught in the arts at school,” Sorry pro.

Citizen education through music

Indeed, what do we learn in a music class at school? according to Job description of the Parisian Music Teacher Available online, for example, “Students learn about different musical directions, practice singing, learn music theory, and sometimes play the flute.”

“We have long since moved away from academic lessons, from learning a musical instrument or musical theory, Anne Claire Skibalt confirms. According to her, music education in schools is among the disciplines that have developed the most in recent decades: “Music in school is a compulsory education, but above all an education for the citizen through music. We form Enlightened amateurs, our role is to make the pupils able to listen, and understand music in their versatility. Hence, it is also an education for the sensitive. This means that through spontaneous practices, the student is pushed to realize his own body, his possibilities and abilities, as well as the ability to be creative, and to invest the vocal field in himself. »

This is not new. Music education transformed deeply in 2008 and is now organized around two concepts: perception and production, in other words, to learn to listen and practice. Singing in particular, but also orchestra or computer-aided music. It is mandatory from kindergarten through middle school, and is shared with Visual Arts, one hour of instruction per week. In high school, it can be specialized education – which since the beginning of the 2019 school year and the disappearance of the S, L and ES streams, is no longer associated with a specific stream – or an optional option. A special case is the so-called classes Sham, With music schedules, present in a limited number of institutions, which offer enhanced music education as well as general education, along with specialized education in the conservatory. Until the 2019 high school reform, music was one of the options that could be offered in the baccalaureate. Its deletion also caused great concern.

From kindergarten to the end of primary school, music is taught by school teachers, sometimes supported by co-musicians, holders of DUMI, a diploma created in the 1980s to advance the teaching of discipline in the face of teacher diversity. schools. , who are employed by the local authorities. From high school, teachers of music and choral singing, trained in ESPEs, and faculties of teaching and education and staffed by National Education, are responsible for both teaching and choral practice.

This practice, in particular, is particularly highlighted thanks to the measures launched since 2017 jointly by the two ministries: Music’s first comeback, followed by the plan of the choral and the plan of all orchestra musicians, which aims to popularize musical practice in the school. A boost to many initiatives that have already existed for many years in this field: thus, during the 2017-2018 year, 56% of schools and 84% of colleges offered choral activity (the publication on generalized choral practices has been in place since 2011). The same is true of the ever-growing practice of orchestras: the Orchester à l’école already in 2014, 1040 orchestras, about 1,400 orchestras in 2020, spread across the territory.

Pedagogy project

As for the students’ meeting with artists, this was already done by the pedagogy of the project, the professionals emphasized.

Chloe is studying at a college in Creteil, Paris region. This year she followed one of her classes on the Ten Months Project of School and Opera at the Paris Opera. “We were able to visit the Bastille Opera and Garnier, met the baritone singer in the Bastille studio with students who had already participated in the project. From the end of January, we began to organize dance workshops, ” Chloe says _._ But there were strikes, then imprisonment, and the project was cut off. Chloe couldn’t take the middle school students to the show, but he was still able to do some basic prep work: script analysis, theater, and even a workshop for writing songs that would be set to music. “The students wanted to tell about their encounter with the two Parisian opera houses, and their fears of discovering a world of opera which, at the base, was not necessarily a world that particularly attracted them, but rather amazed them.”

Chloe is a French language teacher. The experience to which it relates has been carried out as part of a college music education project in collaboration with a music teacher as part of the PEAC, the artistic and cultural education pathway, which has been included in the curriculum since 2013. Partnerships between schools and state and local actors – artists, cultural structures, associations, aim These projects treat music as an education rather than an education: The goal is practice Music with the speakers, to go to the show, meet the musicians, get to know the spectators participating in the concerts and gain knowledge about the works, i.e. a wider environment where the practice is, Explain Mark Lugini, Educational consultant in music education at Hauts de Seine.

As a rule, these projects make it possible to unite many disciplines around the musical object, explains Chloe. “There are of course languages ​​and literature and history-geography, but also the less expected disciplines, like PE for dance or body expression, or even in SVT, in physics-chemistry, for example, about the concept of movement in physics. Or food and the traumas associated with a dancer’s profession.” Chloe says.

We are far from an Epinal image of the registrar and frustrated students facing a topic far from their cultural icons. Our motto is openness to all aesthetics, the intersection of disciplines and practices in the spirit of popular education. What confirms Melanie A musician since 1997, he currently works at Clichy la Garenne in the Paris region. Mélanie holds a DUMI degree, an associate degree as a theater musician, and has an artistic and educational profile. In the elementary school where she teaches, Mélanie works with 35 classes a year, which she supervises during the weekly music education class and in the school’s music projects. Its role is to propose and formulate projects in collaboration with teachers, build partnerships and seek funding. “For example, we worked on the repertoire of the Mediterranean with the Conservatory of Gennevilliers on a project called Escales Méditerranées. It was very easy for the teachers to make a link with the geography and culture of different countries, everything related to the sounds of different languages, since we enriched with languages Berber, Arabic, Macedonian, Italian” She remembers.

We should really support the people who are there

Problem: Not everyone is housed in the same boat when it comes to accessing different CAPP schemes, especially in elementary school. “New cultural and artistic education systems always take care of the same structures by agreement with departments working with the same schools, while at the local level teachers do not even know that cultural and artistic education financial systems exist,” He regrets Cyril, a musician who works in Limoges. Especially since the musicians involved, trained to work concretely in the regions with the population, the networks of associations and artists at the local level, are far from being present in all institutions. According to FNAMI, the National Federation of Interventional Musicians, there are 3,800 jobs in the school (out of 5,000 diplomas since the training centers were established), for about 50,000 public and private schools on the national territory.

“National education does not play its role because it trains public teachers very little in this particularity”, The professional explains. In addition, the existence of the musician in question depends on the funding allocated by local authorities to this specialty. Those who suffer from a chronic lack of vision. What’s interesting is that I think we are three-quarters of the teachers who are not at all aware of the existence of our profession, and even the inspectors who do not know us at all, and who absolutely do not know everything. do or who have an outdated view of our practice,” he thinks. According to the texts, music education has a real place in the school, but in fact, do we really want it, he wonders.

“We are not closed at all if there is an educational project, so there must be guidance by the experts who are the teachers, Anne Claire Skibalt concludes. We are open to integration and joint action. But we really have to take care of what’s already there, and support the people that are out there. And then, in fact, he thought about expanding the network,” The teacher concludes.


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