► Heinrich Schütz, died in Dresden on November 6, 1672
Born in Kostritz (Thuringia) in 1585, Schutz is considered the greatest German composer before Johann Sebastian Bach and even the most important musical figure of his time, comparable to Monteverdi alone. The talent of the innkeeper’s son was encouraged by the Landgrave Maurice of Hesse-Cassel who introduced him to his court school. From 1609 to 1612, Schutz studied in Venice with Giovanni Gabrielli. He will return to the Doge’s Town after twenty years and may have received advice from Monteverdi … an ardent Lutheran organist, who served as choirmaster in Dresden all his life, sometimes prevented by the horrors of the Thirty’s War. The years that brought him to Copenhagen. In a moment deeply influenced by Italy and the richness of its fashion versatility, he reverted to a more intense aesthetic marked by his deep faith.
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Of his abundant production – unfortunately none of the creations of his members have been preserved which nevertheless distinguished the whole of North Germany – are still above all sacred vocal music: Cantiones Sacraethree passions (according to Matthew, Luke and John), a mass (Musicalische Exequien), oratorios (History WinhacksAnd the Die Sieben Worte Jesus Christi am Kreuz).
^ André Cardinal Destoches, born in Paris on April 6, 1672
Before dedicating herself to music, her life was one of the most adventurous. A disciple of the Jesuits, he pursued an expedition to Siam, but, upon his return, chose a military career! Tempted by warrior music, he changed his direction to receive the education of Andre Cambra. His personal skills allowed him to obtain satisfying jobs as superintendent (1718) and then master (1726) the music of the King’s Chamber. Brilliant provider of business to the Royal Academy of Music, he even ran it for a while.
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In 1697, the success of his heroic pastoral Jesus With Louis XIV and then with the Parisian audience it largely opened up to him a singing career, following up with him OmphaleAnd the carnival madness where Callirohe Which gathered some of the most important audiences in the royal palace hall. A resident of the neighborhood of St. Roch’s Church, he was buried there in February 1749. He was long underestimated and considered an amateur, and is appreciated today for his use of sudden dissonance, and expressive melodic lines that enliven his lyrical discourse.
^ César Franck, born in Liège on December 10, 1822
Franck was in his time a major figure in French musical life: a talented pianist and organist (winner of the Organ Saint Clotilde in Paris in 1859), professor at the Conservatory (from 1871, master Vincent de Indy, Ernest Chausson or Augusta Holmes), head The National Music Society of 1886…
However, the beginnings of his career in Paris were difficult, hampered by his father’s ruthless ambition and his status as a foreigner. But Frank could count on the support of Franz Liszt, who always remained an ardent follower. Such a prolific author in many areas, particularly rhetoric (RuthAnd the The Beatitudes) and the symphony program the poem (jinnAnd the Cursed hunter), celebrated above all else for his “pure music”. We see him as the heir of Germanic tradition, by the absolute masterpieces he possesses Sonata for Violin and Piano in Major (1886) and his Quintet for piano and strings in F minor (1879). He died in Paris on November 8, 1890.
► Alexander Nikolayevich Scribin, born in Moscow on January 6, 1872 – according to the Gregorian calendar
After a somewhat erratic training, Scribin entered the Moscow Conservatory in 1888 and followed him there, like his colleague Rachmaninov, where he trained as a pianist and composer. He took on a career as a talented artist that took him across Europe, but he was injured in his right hand, and only resumed to play his own business. In Paris, after a great success in 1896, he met Mikhail Morozov and his wife Margarita who became his patron and supported him in an eventful personal and artistic life, in Europe and back to Russia in 1909.
As a composer, Scribin was also a unique character. In contrast to his colleagues who emphasized their national ties, he claimed that integral symbolism was driven by Theosophical mysticism, centered on synesthesia or the connection of the senses of sight and hearing. He gradually abandoned the structure of classical forms: thus his last piano sonatas (he wrote 10 of them) have only one movement and have ecstasy poem, a monumental symphonic work composed between 1905 and 1908, and its many motifs progress irregularly to an ecstatic epilogue. This is due to the fact that musical development, according to the artist, is above all a spiritual journey. He died in Moscow in April 1915.
^ Ralph Vaughan Williams, born October 12, 1872 in Down Ambney (County of Gloucester)
His father, a clergyman, died very quickly and was raised by his mother, a descendant of the Wedgwood family and related to Charles Darwin. At the Royal College of Music in London, Vaughan Williams was a fellow student of future conductor Leopold Stokowski who later performed many of his symphonies, but also of composer Gustav Holst. With the latter and Frederick Delius, he participated in the revival of English music that began at the end of the nineteenth century and deliberately entered the British tradition, in particular folklore. Published in 1906 English hymns, where he combines new compositions and numerous arrangements of folk songs, and is also involved in the publication of Purcell’s works. In 1910, he achieved his first public success with Fantasy on the theme of Thales who performed at Gloucester Cathedral and a real triumph with his first choral symphony Sea symphony.
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His long activity as a composer (died in London in August 1958) was marked by eclecticism: symphonic, choral, religious pieces, theater and film music, ballet, opera … In addition to an interest in works of the past, a very palpable sensitivity to nature: it permeates in particular ascent lark (1914) in which the violinist embodies the flight of a bird in the stillness of the sky drawn by the orchestra.
^ Iannis Xenakis, born May 29, 1922 in Braila, Romania
Born into the Greek community in Romania, Iannis was sent to Greece to pursue scientific studies. Bathe since childhood in a musical atmosphere, learn about analysis, harmony, counterpoint and produce geometric versions of Bach’s works! The Italian and then the German occupation, his battle in the resistance, then the civil war and his commitment to the communists, frustrated these studies and caused the wound that remained on his face.
In September 1947, he left his country for France where he worked as an architect and engineer, in collaboration with Le Corbusier, notably in the Philips pavilion at the World Exhibition in Brussels in 1958. Meanwhile, with the support of Olivier Messian, he continues his search for new mathematical keys and new technological spaces for musical writing. Thus it was created in 1954 metastases, A graphic header for “random” music (integration of statistical elements of chance). Keen to combine the visual and audio arts, in 1967 Xenakis created his first film Polytopsa sound and light show designed for a specific location, which he would develop and differ in Montreal (for the French pavilion at the 1967 World’s Fair), Persepolis or Clooney … The fans of the series, conquered him with the admiration of a new audience, especially around 1968. He died in Paris in February 2001.
► A hint of “light” music to the end
Finally, 2022 will allow two stars of “light” music to celebrate together. Here, for the concert at the Café Belle Époque, Félix Mayol (1872-1941): His song Come Poupoule! In 1905 he broke all sales records for “Little Shapes,” these cheap scores that preceded the disc in the spread of the song’s hits.
Here, for the 1920s Music Hall play, Maurice Chevalier (1888-1972). Mistinguett first confirmed that he’s become his rival with hits In life, don’t worry (1921) especially Valentine’s Day (1925). Once he returned from the war in 1916, he adopted his theater costume and its symbolic accessory, the boat. An archetype of Parisian banter, Maurice Chevalier charmed Hollywood and worked in cinema. Concerned about his ambiguous position during the years of occupation, he owed his salvation to the support of Louis Aragon and Elsa Triollet.